GLOBAL CORRUPTION REPORT 2007 and the Board of Directors of Transparency International

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GLOBAL CORRUPTION REPORT 2007 and the Board of Directors of Transparency International 27.09.2007 11:38:47 (permalink)
Vietnam ranked 111 in 2006,
degraded to 123 in 2007
in the Global Corruption Report.


“Equal treatment before the law is a pillar of democratic societies. When courts are corrupted by greed or political expediency, the scales of justice are tipped, and ordinary people suffer.”

Huguette Labelle, Chair, Transparency International

Download the Global Corruption Report 2007
Press Release (read online)
Media Pack (download PDF)
Real justice is priceless, says TI’s Labelle
Hold our judicial systems to account, says TI’s Akere Muna
How corruption infiltrates the courts
Integrity punished
A world of bribery: Barometer results on the judiciary
Taking the pulse of judicial corruption around the world
The law is not above the law: global work to fight judicial corruption
Doing your part for judicial integrity, independence and transparency
Press coverage
Media contacts

The Global Corruption Report 2007 concludes that a corrupt judiciary erodes the international community’s ability to prosecute transnational crime and inhibits access to justice and redress for human rights violations. It undermines economic growth by damaging the trust of the investment community, and impedes efforts to reduce poverty.

Board of Directors 

The following is the complete list of the Board of Directors:

Huguette Labelle, Chair

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huguette_labelle.pdf 400.13 kB

Huguette Labelle holds a Doctor of Philosophy, Education. She is a Companion of the Order of Canada. She has been awarded honorary degrees from 12 Canadian Universities and has received the Vanier Medal of the Institute of Public Administration of Canada, the Outstanding Achievement Award of the public Service of Canada, the Management Achievement Award and Ordre de la Pléiade.

She has served for a period of nineteen years as Deputy Head of different Canadian Government Departments including Secretary of State, Transport Canada, the Public Service Commission and the Canadian International Development Agency. She has served on more than 20 Councils and Boards.

She is currently Chancellor of the University of Ottawa, Vice President of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and is serving on the Board of Directors of a number of organizations such as the UN Global Compact, Katimavik, the African Virtual University and Chair of the Financial Services Ombudsnetwork. She is Co-Chair of the Task Force on Chinas Environment and Development Review and Prospect. She is also providing advisory services to several national and international institutions.

She was elected as TI's Chair on 13 November 2005 at the Annual Membership Meeting in Berlin.

Akere Muna, Vice-Chair


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akere_muna.pdf 335.72 kB

Akere T. Muna is founder and former president of Transparency International Cameroon. A lawyer by training, he is President of the Pan African Lawyers Union and former president of the Cameroon Bar Association. Muna is a member of several national commissions on legal reform and curbing corruption.
He was a member of the National Ad-hoc Commission for the Fight against Corruption and has served as a Commonwealth Observer for Zanzibar's elections in 2000.
He was actively involved in the TI working group that helped to draft the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and has written a guide to the convention published by TI.
He was elected to the TI Board at the 2004 Annual Meeting. He was elected as Vice-Chair of the TI Board at the 2005 Annual Meeting

Nancy Boswell

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Nancy Zucker Boswell has been managing TI- USA since shortly after its founding and is now its President.
Her prior experience includes the practice of public international and trade law at Steptoe & Johnson, government relations at the American Association of University Women and international financial matters at Citicorp. She received her law degree summa cum laude from the American University Washington College of Law in Washington, D.C.
Ms. Boswell is a director of PACT and of the International Senior Lawyers Project and co-chair of the American Bar Association Task Force on Foreign Corrupt Practices. She is a cleared advisor to the US Government, serving on the State Department Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy and the USTR Trade & Environment Policy Advisory Committee.
Nancy Zucker Boswell was re-elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual Membership Meeting in Guatemala City on 14 November 2006.

Sion Assidon, Board Member

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sion_assidon.pdf 209.09 kB

Sion Assidon, a mathematician by training and a businessman by profession, was the founding Secretary General of Transparency Maroc and remains a member of its National Council. Mr Assidon was imprisoned from 1972 to 1984 for his efforts in campaigning for democracy in his country.
He is active in several NG0s in the Moroccan civil rights movement including AMRASH which works for sustainable development in villages of the ATLAS mountains and Espace Associatif which promotes the work of NGOs in Morocco.
Sion Assidon was elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual Membership Meeting in Berlin, 12- 13 November 2005.

Boris Divjak, Board Member

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Boris Divjak is an economist by profession. He has been affiliated with Transparency International since late 2000 as a founder and Chairperson of the Board of Directors of Transparency International Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mr Divjak has conducted research, analysis, evaluation and design of recommendations of legislation, institutional capacities and requirements; has led the training of government officials, NGOs and media; implemented surveys and polls preparation, conducting, monitoring and analysis; and conducted public procurement and aid related corruption.
He has worked in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia & Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania – since 1996 and holds a Masters in International Studies from the University of Reading, UK.
Boris Divjak was elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual Membership Meeting in Berlin, 12- 13 November 2005.

Geo-Sung Kim, Board Member

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geo_sung_kim.pdf 247.78 kB

Geo-Sung Kim is Chairman and the founding secretary-general of Transparency International Korea, the South Korean chapter of TI established in 1999.
He is an ordained pastor of the Gumin Presbyterian Church and holds degrees in theology and sociology. He has participated in the democracy and human rights movements in Korea and between 1977-1980 he was twice imprisoned for criticising the then dictatorship.Reverend Kim has served in various civil society organisations over the past 25 years.
In 2002 and 2003, he was honoured by the Korean government as a "person of merit" for his contribution to Korea's democratisation movements. Kim has been active on various government anti-corruption committees and has been an adviser to the Federation of Korean Industries. Rev. Kim was elected to the Board in October 2004.

Chong San Lee, Board Member

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chong_san_lee.pdf 1,006.56 kB

Chong San Lee has served as Deputy President of Transparency International Malaysia for the past five years. Previous to this he has worked as a tax analyst and in 1988 he was appointed the Financial Controller of the Esso Companies in Malaysia.
His many responsibilities in this role included overseeing the company’s ethics and business practices and ensuring compliance with company’s policies. He also participated in the company’s contracting practices. After retiring from ExxonMobil in 2001, he volunteered and worked in many projects organised by Transparency International Malaysia.
Chong San Lee was elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual General Meeting in Berlin, 12- 13 November 2005.

Valeria Merino-Dirani, Board Member

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Valeria Merino-Dirani is a lawyer who has worked to further democracy and transparency initiatives in Latin America for more than 15 years. Since 1999, she has been the executive director of Corporación Latinoamericana para el Desarrollo (CLD), Transparency International's national chapter in Ecuador. She is now Senior Civil Society Advisor, Pan-American Development Foundation (PADF)
Merino-Dirani has helped to establish a network of TI chapters in Latin America. In 1995, she was appointed a member of the Council of the United Nations University and served as the university's vice-president. She has been a pro-bono adviser to several committees of Congress and public entities in Ecuador, and has participated in numerous programmes aimed at reforming aspects of the public sector, including public procurement.
Through the CLD, she was a strong advocate for Ecuador's recently passed freedom of information law. Ms. Merino-Dirani has been on the Board of TI since the 2004 Annual Membership Meeting, held in Nairobi, Kenya.

Devendra Raj Panday, Board Member

Devendra holds a Ph. D. in Public and International Affairs from the University of Pittsburgh, USA. After nineteen years in civil service, he resigned from the government post of Permanent Secretary of the Finance Ministry of Nepal, when the use of public resources for partisan political purposes became acute. He took interest in civil society activities for democracy and human rights in Nepal and South Asia and also got engaged through NGOs and as professional consultant, in economic and social development. In 1990-91, he served his country as Finance Minister.
Afterwards, he intensified civil society work, joined TI and helped establish TI-Nepal which he served as its President and an Executive Member. He faced imprisonment several times for his commitment for civil rights and democracy in Nepal, most recently in early 2006, for nearly 100 days. He authored, co-authored and edited several books, journal articles, newspaper articles and book chapters on development, democracy, development aid, governance and corruption.
Devendra was elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual Membership Meeting in Guatemala City, 14 November 2006.

Laura Puertas Meyer, Board Member

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Laura Puertas Meyer is an economist and journalist and for the past twenty years has dedicated herself to human rights issues and the fight against corruption. She is General News Director of the Peruvian channels America TV and Canal N. From 2002 to 2006 she worked for PROETICA, TI's chapter in Peru, as the Executive Director and is a now member of its Ethics Council.
Ms Puertas Meyer has also worked as a stringer for The New York Times and El Pais since 1992 and has worked for various Peruvian media in magazines, journals, radio and television programs. In 1993, she founded with other Peruvian journalists the IPYS (Instituto Prensa y Sociedad), to promote investigative journalism in the Andean Region.
Laura Puertas Meyer was elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual Membership Meeting in Berlin, 12- 13 November 2005.

Frank Vogl, Board Member

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Frank Vogl is a co-founder of TI, a member of the TI Advisory Council and he served three terms as Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors (1993-2002). Frank, born in the U.K. and resident in Washington in the U.S., is President of Vogl Communications, Inc and Publisher of
He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Ethics Resource Center and a member of the Fellows Program of the Ethics Resource Center; a Trustee of the Committee for Economic Development and a member of its corporate governance working group; a member of the International Advisory Council of the New Israel Fund; and a member of the 'Wisemen' - an organization of U.S. public relations' industry leaders.
A graduate of Leeds University in the U.K., Frank was an economics correspondent for Reuters in London and Brussels, then European Business Correspondent of The Times (London) based in Frankfurt and from 1974-1981 he served as U.S. Economics Correspondent of The Times. From 1981-1990 he served as Director of Information & Public Affairs of the World Bank and as the chief press advisor to the President of the Bank. He has lectured and written extensively on international economics, ethics and corruption.
Frank Vogl was elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual General Meeting in Berlin, 12- 13 November 2005.

Gerard Zovighian, Board Member


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gerard_zovghian.pdf 307.87 kB

Gerard Zovighian has been as an Auditor and Managing Partner of BDO-Fiduciaire du Moyen Orient since 1996. Prior to this he held, from 1976 - 1980, the post of Middle East Regional Coordinator of BDO-Fiduciaire du Moyen Orient in London, and worked in Paris with Price Waterhouse & Company as an auditor. Mr Zovighian also has various professional memberships that include the role of Vice Chair-person and founding member of the Lebanese Transparency Association (LTA, TI’s National Chapter in Lebanon), the Lebanese Association of Certified Public Accountants, a lawyer of the Paris Bar, a Member of the ‘Chambre Nationale des Conseillers Financiers’ (CNCF - Paris), an Advisor to the Beirut Chamber of Commerce & Industry, for fiscal and financial matters and Advisor to the Board of The Order of Malta, as Knight of the Order.
Gerard Zovighian was elected as a Member of the Board of Directors of TI at the Annual General Meeting in Berlin, 12- 13 November 2005.
<bài viết được chỉnh sửa lúc 04.10.2007 04:21:17 bởi Ngọc Lý >
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    RE: GLOBAL CORRUPTION REPORT 2007 and the Board of Directors of Transparency Internationa 27.09.2007 22:55:59 (permalink)
    Vietnam ranked 111 in 2006,
    degraded to 123 in 2007
    in the Global Corruption Report.
    How corruption infiltrates the courts 
    Judicial corruption usually falls into two categories: political interference in the judicial process by the legislative or executive branch, and bribery.

    The importance of an independent judiciary cannot be overemphasised. Everyone loses when justice is corrupted, particularly the poor, who are forced to pay bribes they cannot afford.

    Transparency International’s latest global survey of attitudes towards corruption reveals that in more than 25 countries, at least one in 10 households had to pay a bribe to get access to justice.

    Corruption in the judiciary includes any inappropriate influence on the impartiality of judicial proceedings and judgements and can extend to the bribing of judges for favourable decisions, or no decision at all.

    Judicial corruption includes:
  • the misuse of judicial funds and power (ie. nepotism or manipulation of contracts for court construction and equipment)
  • biased case allocation and bias in other pre-trial procedures (ie. court clerks bribed to "lose" files and evidence)
  • influence of any trial or court settlement, and the enforcement - or not - of court decisions and sentences

    Bribery, the other dark thread of judicial corruption, can occur throughout the fabric of the judicial process.

    As 32 country reports in the Global Corruption Report demonstrate, corruption by different actors has a distinct effect on the judicial system and contributes to its deterioration and the end of public trust.

    Judges may accept bribes to:
  • delay or accelerate cases
  • accept or deny appeals
  • influence other judges or simply to decide a case in a certain way

    Court officials may seek bribes for services that should be free.

    Lawyers may charge additional “fees” to expedite or delay cases, or to direct clients to judges known to take bribes. Factors affecting the vulnerability to bribery of judges and other court personnel include:
  • poor salaries
  • insecure working conditions (including unfair promotion and transfer processes)
  • a lack of continuous training
      <bài viết được chỉnh sửa lúc 04.10.2007 04:21:46 bởi Ngọc Lý >
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        RE: GLOBAL CORRUPTION REPORT 2007 and the Board of Directors of Transparency Internationa 03.10.2007 15:48:48 (permalink)
        Vietnam ranked 111 in 2006,
        degraded to 123 in 2007
        in the Global Corruption Report.


        Transparency International´s Corruption Perceptions Index 2007.

        Persistent corruption in low-income countries requires global action

        Concerted efforts needed in rich and poor countries to stem flow of corrupt monies and make justice work for the poorest
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        • Corruption drains desperately needed resources, says TI’s Labelle
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          <bài viết được chỉnh sửa lúc 04.10.2007 04:22:06 bởi Ngọc Lý >
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            RE: GLOBAL CORRUPTION REPORT 2007 and the Board of Directors of Transparency Internationa 03.10.2007 23:50:47 (permalink)
            Vietnam ranked 111 in 2006,
            degraded to 123 in 2007
            in the Global Corruption Report.

            Integrity punished

            For judges who refuse to be compromised, political retaliation can be swift and harsh. Unfair or ineffective procedures to discipline and remove corrupt judges can end up being used instead for the removal of independent judges.

            Failure to appoint judicial officials on merit can lead to the selection of a pliant, corruptible judiciary. “Problematic” judges can be reassigned or have sensitive cases transferred to more pliable judges.

            Interference from politicians or civil servants can also buy “legal” cover for embezzlement, nepotism, cronyism and illegal political decisions. Such interference can be as blatant as physical threats and intimidation, and as subtle as the manipulation of judicial appointments, salaries and conditions of service.

            <bài viết được chỉnh sửa lúc 04.10.2007 04:22:24 bởi Ngọc Lý >
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              RE: GLOBAL CORRUPTION REPORT 2007 and the Board of Directors of Transparency Internationa 05.10.2007 09:49:03 (permalink)
              Vietnam ranked 111 in 2006,
              degraded to 123 in 2007
              in the Global Corruption Report.

              A world of bribery: Barometer results on the judiciary

              Transparency International’s (TI) Global Corruption Barometer 2006, released in December 2006, explores how corruption affects the lives of citizens, by assessing both the form and extent of corruption, and which sectors of society they perceive as the most corrupt.

              In 2006, the legal system/judiciary was identified as the most corrupt sectors and the third most common recipient of bribes. Worldwide, 8 percent of Barometer respondents who had contact with the legal system/judiciary paid a bribe.

              See Figure 1 below:

              (to see figure 1 in original size click here and go to page 315)

              The experience of bribery was particularly high in Bolivia, Cameroon, Gabon, India, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan and Paraguay – where more than one in three court users admitted to paying a bribe.

              The Barometer also broke this down by region to better assess trends. In Africa and Latin America, about one in 5 people paid a bribe, compared to 15 percent in Newly Independent States and the Asia Pacific, 9 percent in South East Europe, 2 percent in North America and 1 percent in the European Union and other Western European countries.

              See Table 1 below:

              (to see Table 1 in original size click here and go to page 11)

              Respondents from 34 countries polled for the Barometer identified judges as the actors they most needed to bribe to obtain a fair judgement. Judges were followed by lawyers, police and prosecutors.

              * The Global Corruption Barometer 2006 reflects the findings of a survey of 59,661 people in 62 low, middle and high-income countries, carried out on behalf of TI by Gallup International, as part of its Voice of the People Survey, between July and September 2006.

              <bài viết được chỉnh sửa lúc 05.10.2007 09:50:07 bởi Ngọc Lý >
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                REAL JUSTICE IS PRICELESS - SAYS LABELLE HUGUETTE 06.10.2007 22:22:10 (permalink)
                Vietnam ranked 111 in 2006,
                degraded to 123 in 2007
                in the Global Corruption Report.
                OPENING STATEMENT
                HUGUETTE LABELLE
                Chair, Transparency International
                On release of the
                Global Corruption Report 2007
                London, 24 May 2007
                As prepared for delivery
                There may be nothing more fundamental to human security and social stability than
                the rule of law. And very few things are as frightening as a justice system built on
                greed and political expediency rather than fairness and objectivity.
                We have a fundamental right to expect that the court will be the final arbiter of right
                and wrong. We should be able to take for granted that if we are accused of a crime or
                involved in a dispute, we will receive a fair and objective trial.
                But what if the court’s decision is for sale? What if a bribe can tip the scales of justice
                in favour of one party, or slam the door of the courthouse in the face of those too poor
                to pay?
                Justice with a price tag is no justice at all. Real justice is priceless.
                Corrupt courts deny victims and the accused the basic human right to a fair and
                impartial trial, sometimes even to a trial at all. Those who cannot or will not pay are
                locked out. Legal instruments such as contracts - the fabric of business and commerce
                – are meaningless. Criminals go unpunished, destroying effective governance and
                democratic participation. Trade, investment and economic growth are diminished.
                Today's Global Corruption Report 2007 shows that bribery and political interference
                can occur at every point in the judicial process.
                It is tempting to simply point an accusing finger at judges. The influence of a corrupt
                judge can be huge. They may accept bribes or submit to political pressure to delay or
                accelerate cases, accept or deny appeals, influence other judges or simply to decide a
                case a certain way. They may issue biased verdicts or even participate in outright theft
                of funds from judicial budgets.
                But judicial corruption can extend to all players in the game. Court officials may seek
                bribes for services that should be free; lawyers may charge additional ‘fees’ to
                expedite or delay cases, direct clients to judges known to take bribes, collude with
                judges to lose a case, or even act as intermediaries for bribe-paying. Clerks may
                purposely lose certain files. Prosecutors may drop certain cases for a price.
                In the United Kingdom, judges are seldom the target of allegations of corruption, but
                law enforcement agencies frequently stand accused. In France, close links between
                prosecutors and the executive leaves ample room for political interference,
                particularly in the investigation of major corruption scandals. In Venezuela, studies
                show that tampering with evidence by prosecutors for material gain is common
                practice, casting doubt on any decisions the courts might reach.
                Political interference in the judicial process can skew the system in favour of the
                government or other powerful parties at the expense of the rule of law. In the United
                States, for example, the Attorney General dismissed eight federal prosecutors
                perceived to be too liberal, reputedly to make appointments more in line with the
                government’s political views. Interference from politicians or civil servants can buy
                “legal” cover for embezzlement, nepotism, cronyism and illegal political decisions.
                The Report finds that after several decades of reform efforts, judges and courts around
                the world continue to face pressure to rule in favour of powerful political or economic
                Where does judicial corruption occur?
                Judicial corruption is pervasive in many parts of the world. According to a recent
                Transparency International survey, one in five citizens across Africa and Latin
                America who had contact with the judiciary reported paying a bribe. Transparency
                International Bangladesh found that two out of three individuals who used the lower
                courts in 2004 paid a bribe, and that the typical payment was an astounding 25 per
                cent of the average yearly income.
                But judicial corruption is not just a phenomenon of poor countries. A 2004 poll in the
                United States showed that a full 70 percent of respondents believed that judicial
                campaign contributions have some influence on judges’ decisions.
                The Global Corruption Report 2007 brings together the testimony of dozens of
                organisations and individuals who have dedicated their skills and efforts to ridding
                justice institutions of corruption. Many are also human rights experts, because judicial
                corruption and denial of human rights are intimately linked.
                Together they show the profound impact of judicial corruption, its mechanisms and its
                costs. But equally important, they offer detailed recommendations for strengthening
                judicial integrity, independence and accountability. These are the concepts that
                underlie the entire Report. When they are absent, the courts are vulnerable to abuse
                and manipulation.
                I would like to touch on just a few of the Report’s recommendations, many of which
                are captured in the press release you have received.
                First, judicial and prosecutorial appointments, case assignments and removals must be
                transparent, independent of the executive and legislative branches, and merit-based.
                Sufficient salaries will help strengthen the prestige of the profession. Ensuring the
                physical safety of judges and court staff, and providing sufficient resources for their
                work, are also important elements that contribute to judicial integrity and
                Accountability can be strengthened by more effective mechanisms for detecting
                corruption in the judiciary, because the threat of discovery is a strong disincentive to
                corrupt behaviour. These include limiting judicial immunity, introducing rigorous
                disciplinary rules for investigating complaints, and defining clear rights for judges in
                such disciplinary proceedings, based on a code of judicial conduct.
                Journalists must be free to monitor and comment on legal proceedings, reporting
                reliable information on laws, proposed changes in legislation, court procedures and
                judgements to the public.
                Civil society has a vital oversight role. Citizens, journalists, legal associations and
                civil society can all question, monitor and comment on how judges are selected, how
                they are disciplined, how courts handle their caseloads and how judges arrive at their
                decisions. It can scrutinise the political pressure brought to bear on the judicial system
                and both hold it to account and bolster its independence.
                TI’s work
                Transparency International is active in monitoring and awareness-raising activities. TI
                Ecuador has monitored Supreme Court appointments, TI Argentina has been active in
                pushing for asset declarations for Supreme Court justices and TI Nicaragua has
                carried out diagnostic research of corruption in the judiciary.
                In Ghana, our national chapter has promoted civil society efforts to monitor courts,
                including the publication of a manual on judicial monitoring. And TI’s Cambodia
                chapter, the Centre for Social Development, has carried out its Court Watch Project,
                monitoring thousands of cases over the last three years.
                Across Eastern Europe and Central Asia, chapters are operating Advocacy and Legal
                Advice Centres, assisting the victims of corruption, many of whom are specifically
                victims of judicial corruption. They have helped thousands of citizens pursue their
                cases and have harvested statistical data that form the basis for many of the
                recommendations you see today.
                No law can be effective without an independent, accountable and effective judiciary
                to enforce it. One that has the confidence of all citizens that they are being treated
                justly. Above all, judicial systems must be made more transparent. Sunshine is the
                greatest driver of accountability. It is the most effective way to ensure that judicial
                integrity, independence and accountability tip the scales of justice back into balance.

                Transparency International is the global civil society organisation leading the fight against corruption

                Real justice is priceless, says TI’s Labelle
                <bài viết được chỉnh sửa lúc 07.10.2007 08:32:13 bởi Ngọc Lý >
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